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All you need to know about Paediatric Epilepsy

What is Paediatric Epilepsy?

Pediatric epilepsy refers to a neurological condition where children experience recurrent seizures. Specialized healthcare professionals, such as pediatric epileptologists and pediatric neurologists, play crucial roles in diagnosing and managing the disorder. 

These experts employ a range of therapies tailored to kids, including medications, dietary interventions, and, in some cases, surgical procedures.

Treatment plans are designed to control seizures while considering the child's overall development and well-being. Regular monitoring, collaboration with parents, and adjusting therapies as needed are essential components of managing pediatric epilepsy.

Types of Paediatric Epilepsy

Several types of seizures lie within the scope of pediatric epilepsy. The classification of seizures is based on the specific symptoms and the area of the brain affected. A child with epilepsy may experience more than one type of seizure. 

Understanding the different types of seizures can help parents manage their child's epilepsy more effectively. 

Generalized seizures

Generalized seizures affect both sides of the brain and can cause loss of consciousness, muscle rigidity, convulsions, and involuntary movements. In a generalized seizure, the child may experience convulsions where their body shakes uncontrollably. It's like an electrical storm affecting the entire brain, leading to temporary confusion afterward.

Focal seizures

Focal seizures, also known as partial seizures, begin in a specific area of the brain. These seizures can cause a range of symptoms, including sensory changes, motor movements, and altered consciousness. For instance, the child may experience unusual sensations like tingling in one hand or a sudden, unexplained fear. Focal seizures can also involve involuntary movements.

Risk factors for paediatric epilepsy

Infantile spasms

Infantile spasms are a specific type of seizure that occurs in infants between 3 and 12 months of age. These seizures are characterized by sudden, brief muscle contractions and can cause developmental delays if left untreated. Infantile seizures may manifest as sudden, repetitive movements or staring spells. For example, an infant might exhibit rhythmic jerking of arms or legs, accompanied by a blank gaze.

Febrile seizures 

Febrile seizures are seizures that occur in young children as a result of a high fever. These seizures are generally harmless and do not cause any long-term complications. 

Early intervention services are crucial in pediatric epilepsy for timely diagnosis and customized treatment plans. Recognizing and addressing the condition promptly can prevent long-term complications and enhance the child's quality of life. 

Specialized care from pediatric neurologists and epileptologists, combined with targeted therapies, helps manage seizures effectively. Early interventions not only alleviate symptoms but also support the child's overall development, promoting better cognitive and emotional well-being.

Causes and Risk Factors of Pediatric Epilepsy

The causes of pediatric epilepsy can vary from child to child. Each child's situation is unique, and the interplay of various factors can influence the risk of developing epilepsy. Several known factors can contribute to the development of epilepsy in children.

Risk factors for paediatric epilepsy

Genetic factors

Certain kids might be more prone to getting epilepsy because of their genes. This means they have a higher chance of getting the condition if someone in their family has had epilepsy or other brain-related issues.

Brain injuries

Traumatic brain injuries, such as those caused by accidents or infections, can increase the risk of developing epilepsy in children. These injuries can disrupt the normal electrical activity in the brain, leading to seizures. 

Developmental disorders

Children with certain developmental disorders, such as autism or cerebral palsy, may be more prone to developing epilepsy. 

Also, note that in many cases, the exact cause of pediatric epilepsy may not be identified. 

Diagnosing Paediatric Epilepsy

Diagnosing pediatric epilepsy involves a comprehensive assessment by specialized healthcare experts such as pediatric neurologists and pediatric epileptologists. 

These experts employ various tools, including neurological examinations, EEGs, and imaging studies, to identify and understand seizure patterns. Early intervention services like speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and behavioral therapy play a pivotal role in providing timely and tailored treatments, ensuring effective management and improved outcomes for children with epilepsy.

Diagnosing pediatric epilepsy involves a comprehensive evaluation of a child's medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. The goal is to determine the underlying cause of the seizures and develop an appropriate treatment plan personalized to your child’s unique needs. 

Medical history

The healthcare professional will ask detailed questions about your child's seizures, including the frequency, duration, and specific symptoms. They may also inquire about any potential triggers or patterns associated with the seizures.

Physical examination

A thorough physical examination will be conducted to assess your child's overall health and neurological function. The healthcare professional may look for any physical signs or abnormalities that could be associated with epilepsy.

Diagnostic tests

Several diagnostic tests may be performed to aid the diagnosis of pediatric epilepsy, including electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood tests. MRI can provide detailed images of the brain to identify any structural abnormalities. On the other hand, blood tests may be conducted to check for any underlying metabolic or genetic conditions.

Risk factors for paediatric epilepsy


Pediatric epilepsy can be a challenging condition for both children and their families. 

Understanding pediatric epilepsy involves recognizing various factors such as brain injuries, abnormalities, developmental disorders, metabolic conditions, etc. Parents and caregivers must be aware of potential risk factors and symptoms, and seek timely guidance from both neurologists and pediatricians. 

Specializing in early intervention for neurodiverse conditions such as Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Down Syndrome, and Dyslexia, Geniuslane aims to unlock the full potential of each child through tailored support and innovative methodology.

Each child's experience with epilepsy is unique, and what works for one child may not work for another. Incorporating this approach, Geniuslane presents various resources and treatment options to help navigate the complexities of pediatric epilepsy and provide your child with the support they need to thrive. With over 800 treatment options available, Geniuslane’s team of expert surgeons, therapists, and medical staff aims to be your go-to institution for all of your pediatric neurology concerns.

Visit your nearest Genius Lane Child Development Centre and consult an expert!

Or book an online consultation session with our pediatric neurologists now at +91 7669988833.

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